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Mechanical stress to muscle tissue is primarily mediated by the intensity of the eccentric muscle actions muscle lengthening under force.

Loading that is greater than concentric muscle shortening maximal strength e. The mechanical stress of such overload can create muscle tissue damage and produce dramatic deformation in the geometrical organization of muscle fibers sarcomeres [8].

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Such damage can be significant, if not injurious, due to the loss of the structural integrity and contractile function [9]. Under such conditions, the structure of the circulatory vessels is altered by changes in capillary luminal shapes cheat mode χάνουν βάρος areas [10]. Whereas most exercise results in some disruption of muscle fibers due to mechanical stress, chemical factors associated with exercise stress can result in more long term dysfunction due to free radical scavenging, which can continue to degrade tissue cheat mode χάνουν βάρος over the recovery period of 5 to 10 days [11, 12].

This problem is exacerbated by the increased release of cortisol, which has negative effects cheat mode χάνουν βάρος immune cell activation. These chemical responses to the mechanical stress of exercises cause physical performance decrements and delayed-onset muscle soreness DOMS [13]. A new role of L-carnitine may rest in its ability to reduce chemical damage to tissues and help the process of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.

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Potentially, Lcarnitine may improve blood flow during and following exercise, and optimize the signals supporting tissue repair processes. Over the past several years, we have investigated this theoretical potential and developed a new paradigm for the use of L-carnitine in exercise.

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Independent of mechanical damage, exercise results in breakdown of adenosine triphosphate ATPaccumulation of adenosine diphosphate ADP within the smooth muscle of the pre-capillary sphincter Fig. Accumulation of AMP leads to the formation of hypoxanthine that diffuses out of the capillary endothelial cell.

Hypoxia induced by exercise Fig. The increase in intracellular calcium activates calcium-dependent proteases Fig. Recent work by Hellsten et al. Xanthine oxidase then catalyzes the cheat mode χάνουν βάρος of xanthine from hypoxanthine Fig. Kraemer et al.

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Theoretical paradigm for the role of L-carnitine in exercise recovery; numbers indicate areas of recent or current research; see text for details uric acid Fig. These reactions utilize molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor and form a superoxide radical Fig. The superoxide radical can combine with iron and form reactive hydroxy radicals that attack cheat mode χάνουν βάρος fatty acids in cell membranes Fig. This attack initiates a chain of lipid peroxidation reactions.

Lipid peroxidation results in the formation of numerous aldehydes of different chain lengths, such as the 3-carbon product malondialdehyde MDA Fig. MDA is thus used as a plasma marker of free radical damage.

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The disruption to the cell membrane results in leakage of cytosolic proteins such as creatine kinase CK Fig.

Finally, superoxide radicals also form intermediates Fig. L-Carnitine may have a role in reducing the hypoxic stress of tissues. Studies have attempted to show that L-carnitine has vasodilation properties.

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Ischemia in endothelial cells can result in carnitine release, increased oxidative stress, and compromised blood flow [16]. These responses can be ameliorated by carnitine administration [17].

Incorporating this theory into an exercise model, Giamberadino et al.

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This was evidenced by reduced creatine kinase concentrations a marker of sarcolemmal damage and subjective indicators of muscle pain and tenderness. The authors suggested that L-carnitine enhanced oxygen availability, L-Carnitine and Exercise Recovery which subsequently attenuated the accumulation of free radicals that is common after exercise stress.

From these suggestions, we have developed our model for the role of L-carnitine in recovery following exercise. Blood samples were obtained on six consecutive days D1 to D6. Muscle tissue damage at the mid-thigh was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging MRI prior to exercise D1 and following exercise D3 and D6. Similarly, exercise-induced increases in plasma malondialdehyde returned to resting values sooner during LCLT supplementation compared to placebo.

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These data indicated that LCLT supplementation was effective in enhancing exercise recovery and mediating muscle damage, and therefore supported our experimental paradigm for the role of L-carnitine in exercise recovery.

We propose that enhanced serum carnitine leads to accumulation within endothelial cells and enhanced directly or indirectly vasodilation of αρσενική ρουτίνα απώλειας λίπους capillary vessel. The subsequent increase in blood flow and delivery of oxygen to muscle tissue may reduce the magnitude of exercise-induced hypoxia and thus attenuate the cascade of events that lead to free radical formation and membrane disruption.

Hormones in the Recovery Process Cheat mode χάνουν βάρος A host of hormones are involved with the signaling of protein synthesis and immune cell function following tissue damage.

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The mechanisms by which such signals are involved remain a topic of current research. Primary anabolic hormones are growth hormone sgrowth factors, and androgens, which have all been viewed as potential players in the normal exercise recovery process. In addition, cortisol has been cast as an important hormone in the repair process due to 1 its role in contractile protein breakdown in attempt to spare muscle glycogen and 2 its negative effects on immune cell activation during the inflammatory process.

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Uptake of carnitine occurs in the central nervous system [19] and the testes [20]. At the level of the hypothalamus, carnitine has been shown to restore lutenizing hormone pulsatility and gonadal function in those with hypothalamic W.

Furthermore, supplementation stimulated in vitro K. Thus, L-carnitine cheat mode χάνουν βάρος be influencing recovery, from brain-level signaling processes to substrate availability and cheat mode χάνουν βάρος in the testes [25]. In rats exposed cheat mode χάνουν βάρος chronic intermittent cold-water swimming, supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine mediated the decline in testosterone observed following P supplementation [26].

L-Carnitine could help mediate enhanced tissue repair following exercise due to improvement of blood flow. We [27] examined the influence of LCLT supplementation on the normal tissue repair recovery response signals i. Ten healthy, recreationally weight-trained men volunteered and were matched for body size and strength. On D2, participants performed the same squat protocol as used previously cheat mode χάνουν cheat mode χάνουν βάρος our laboratory 5 sets of 15—20 repetitions.

Blood samples were obtained before exercise and 0, 15, 30,and minutes post-exercise.

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After a 1-week washout period, participants then consumed the other supplement for a 3-week period, and the same experimental protocol was repeated. No other direct effects of LCLT supplementation were observed in absolute concentrations of the hormones examined. Blood flow enhancement to tissues may help mediate quicker recovery following exercise stress.

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In a recent meeting [28] we presented the first evidence that LCLT supplementation by improving blood flow under hypoxic conditions may enhance recovery at the level of the tissue receptor e. The combination of food ingestion as well as LCLT enhanced recovery of muscle per our improved blood flow mechanisms allowing greater interactions with protein repair mechanisms [29]. These results did provide some initial indications that repair of muscle tissue via improved blood flow, reduced free radicals, and more intact tissue aids recovery and was enhanced by LCLT supplementation.

The timing of increased protein synthesis via cheat mode χάνουν βάρος of nutrients may well be linked to the interface of optimal use of LCLT supplementation. With the use of such supplementation each day concomitant with meals and physical training, LCLT appeared to augment recovery response of muscle at rest and may be important during physical training or periods of high activity in an active lifestyle.

Nevertheless, such data has started to shed light on the interaction of LCLT with πώς να χάσετε λίπος χωρίς βάρη recovery process of which nutrient intake and protein synthesis are intimately involved.

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